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《独立宣言》颁布236年!  

2012-07-04 10:37:34|  分类: 摘抄 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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美国位于北美洲南部,原是印第安人的聚居地。从15世纪末起,西班牙、荷兰、法国、英国开始向北美洲移民。17世纪到18世纪前半期,英国在北美大西洋沿岸建立了13个殖民地,并加强了对殖民地人民的压迫和剥削,激起了当地人民和新兴资产阶级的反抗。1775年,北美13个殖民地的人民开始掀起推翻英国殖民统治的独立战争,组成了"大陆军",由乔治·华盛顿任总司令。1776年7月4日,殖民地代表在费城召开了第二次大陆会议,通过了《独立宣言》,正式宣布建立美利坚合众国。

《独立宣言》是英属北美殖民地人民宣告独立的纲领性文件,马克思称赞它是“第一个人权宣言”。《独立宣言》向全世界宣告:“联合一致的殖民地从此是自由和独立的国家”。《独立宣言》的起草人是资产阶级民主派人士托马斯·杰弗逊。来自各殖民地的56位代表在《宣言》上签了字。宣言的标题是《美利坚十三国联合邦的一致宣言》。《宣言》全文约2500字,分三个部分。第一部分阐明资产阶级革命的基本原则,提出了著名的人权原则,《宣言》指出:“人类生而平等,造物者赋予他们若干不可剥夺的权利,其中包括生命权、自由权和追求幸福的权利”。第二部分谴责英国殖民当局的种种暴政。第三部分宣告13个殖民地独立,建立独立国家,断绝与英国的一切政治关系。《独立宣言》反映了北美殖民地人民争取自由独立的愿望,激发了美国人民的自信心和自豪感,极大地鼓舞了各阶层群众奋起参加独立战争。《独立宣言》对争取各国人民的同情和支持,推动后来的欧洲资产阶级革命,特别是法国大革命及法国的《人权宣言》都产生了积极的影响。

《独立宣言》发表以后第5年的9月,英国军队主力在约克镇被击溃,被迫同美国讲和,并于1783年签订《巴黎和约》,正式承认13个殖民地脱离英国独立。美洲出现了第一个资产阶级共和国。后来,7月4日被定为美国国庆日。每年的这一天,在美国各地都举行隆重的盛典,进行歌舞、体育、游行等活动。早期的独立日庆祝活动主要是游行和演讲,有时还带有一定的宗教色彩,以后增加了体育比赛等户外活动。有一个时期,美国人民燃放鞭炮烟火庆贺国庆,20世纪以后,政府为防止发生人身事故和火灾明令取消了这种形式。每年的独立日这一天,全美大小教堂钟声齐鸣,而头一个敲响的是费城的自由钟。

 

The Declaration of Independence

IN CONGRESS, JULY 4,
       1776 THE UNANIMOUS
       DECLARATION OF THE THIRTEEN UNITED STATES OF AMERAICA

     

When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws Nature and Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

     We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that they are among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among them, deriving their just power from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than t right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity, which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is usurpations, all having in direct object tyranny over these States. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.

     He has refused his assent to laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
     He has forbidden his Governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend them.
He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
     He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.]
     He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasion on the rights of the people.
     He has refused for a long time, after such dissolution, to cause others to be elected ; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without and convulsion within.
     He has endeavored to prevent the population of these states; for that purpose obstructing the laws of naturalizing of foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the condition of new appropriations of lands.
     He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent of laws for establishing judiciary powers.
     He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their office, and the amount and payment of their salary. 
     He has erected a multitude of new officers, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people, and eat out our substances.
     He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies without the consent of our legislatures.
     He has affected to render the military independent of and superior to the civil power.
    He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation.
     For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us;
     For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any murder which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States.
     For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world;
     For imposing taxes on us without our consent;
     For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury;
     For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offenses;  
     For abolishing the free systems of English laws in a neighboring Province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule these Colonies;
     For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our governments;
     For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
     He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us.
    He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
     He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely parallel in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.
     He has constrained our fellow citizens taken captive on the high seas to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands.
     He has excited domestic insurrection amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.
     In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms: our repeated petition have been answered only by repeated injury. A prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
     Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpation, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our separation, and hold them., as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.
      We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled , appealing to the supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name, and by authority of the good people of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United States Colonies and Independent States; that they are absolved by from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.

 

 

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